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Jack Kittinger

Jack Kittinger

Research Professor, School of Sustainability, College of Global Futures

Conservation International
7192 Kalanianaole Hwy, Ste G230
Honolulu, HI 96825


  • Affiliate Global Futures Scholar, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Futures Laboratory
  • Research Professor, School of Sustainability, College of Global Futures
  • Conservation International-Center for Biodiversity Outcomes Professor of Practice, Center for Biodiversity Outcomes, Global Institute of Sustainability and Innovation


John N. ("Jack") Kittinger is the senior director of the Global Fisheries and Aquaculture Program in Conservation International's Center for Oceans and a Professor of Practice in Arizona State University’s Center for Biodiversity Outcomes, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability. Under his leadership, CI works to protect biodiversity and improve the wellbeing of oceandependent communities by implementing sustainable fisheries and aquaculture solutions built on partnerships and investments from ocean to plate. A social scientist and marine ecologist by training, Dr. Kittinger takes a comprehensive interest in finding sustainable solutions to complex problems facing the ocean environment and the people who depend on it. He has extensive experience coordinating multi-stakeholder teams and has worked as a consultant, an academic researcher, educator, and a program director in the nonprofit sector. A lifelong surfer, fisher and waterman, with family ties to the coastal Carolinas, he is committed to ocean-based learning experiences and to being in the water as often as possible. He and his family live in Niu Valley, Oahu.


Journal Articles


Marshall, N., M. L. Barnes, A. Birtles, K. Brown, J. E. Cinner, M. Curnock, H. Eakin, J. Goldberg, M. Gooch, J. N. Kittinger, P. Marshall, D. Manuel-Navarrete, M. Pelling, P. L. Pert, B. Smit and R. Tobin. 2018. Measuring what matters in the Great Barrier Reef. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16(5):271-277. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1808. (link )


Ayers, A. L., J. N. Kittinger, M. T. Imperial and M. B. Vaughan. 2017. Making the transition to co-management governance arrangements in Hawai‘i: A framework for understanding transaction and transformation costs. International Journal of the Commons 11(1):388-421. DOI: 10.18352/ijc.709. (link )

Balvanera, P., T. M. Daw, T. A. Gardner, B. Martin-Lopez, A. Norstrom, C. I. Speranza, M. Spierenburg, E. M. Bennett, M. Farfan, M. Hamann, J. N. Kittinger, T. Luthe, M. Maass, G. D. Peterson and G. Perez-Verdin. 2017. Key features for more successful place-based sustainability research on social-ecological systems: A Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) perspective. Ecology and Society 22(1):Art. 14. DOI: 10.5751/ES-08826-220114. (link )

Bennett, N. J., L. Teh, Y. Ota, P. Christie, A. Ayers, J. C. Day, P. Franks, D. Gill, R. L. Gruby, J. N. Kittinger, J. Z. Koehn, N. Lewis, J. Parks, M. Vierros, T. S. Whitty, A. Wilhelm, K. Wright, J. A. Aburto, E. M. Finkbeiner, C. F. Gaymer, H. Govan, N. Gray, R. M. Jarvis, M. Kaplan-Hallam and T. Satterfield. 2017. An appeal for a code of conduct for marine conservation. Marine Policy 81(Jul):411-418. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2017.03.035. (link )

Grafeld, S., K. L. Oleson, L. Teneva and J. N. Kittinger. 2017. Follow that fish: Uncovering the hidden blue economy in coral reef fisheries. PLOS One 12(8):e0182104. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182104. (link )

Kittinger, J. N., L. C. Teh, E. H. Allison, N. J. Bennett, L. B. Crowder, E. M. Finkbeiner, C. C. Hicks, C. G. Scarton, K. Nakamura, Y. Ota, J. Young, A. Alifano, A. Apel, A. Arbib, L. Bishop, M. Boyle, A. M. Cisneros-Montemayor, P. Hunter, E. Le Cornu, M. Levine, R. S. Jones, J. Z. Koehn, M. Marschke, J. G. Mason, F. Micheli, L. McClenachan, C. Opal, J. Peacey, S. H. Peckham, E. Schemmel, V. Solis-Rivera, W. Swartz and T. A. Wilhelm. 2017. Committing to socially responsible seafood. Science 356(6341):912-913. DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9969. (link )


Cinner, J. E., C. Huchery, M. A. MacNeil, N. A. Graham, T. R. McClanahan, J. Maina, E. Maire, J. N. Kittinger, C. C. Hicks, C. Mora, E. H. Allison, S. D'Agata, A. Hoey, D. A. Feary, L. B. Crowder, I. D. Williams, M. Kulbicki, L. Vigliola, L. Wantiez, G. J. Edgar, R. D. Stuart-Smith, S. A. Sandin, A. L. Green, M. J. Hardt, M. Beger, A. Friedlander, S. J. Campbell, K. E. Holmes, S. K. Wilson, E. Brokovich, A. J. Brooks, J. J. Cruz-Motta, D. J. Booth, P. Chabanet, C. Gough, M. Tupper, S. C. Ferse, U. R. Sumaila and D. Mouillot. 2016. Bright spots among the world's coral reefs. Nature 535(7612):416-419. DOI: 10.1038/nature18607. (link )

Hicks, C. C., L. B. Crowder, N. A. Graham, J. N. Kittinger and E. Le Cornu. 2016. Social drivers forewarn of marine regime shifts. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14(4):252-260. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1284. (link )

Kittinger, J. N., T. M. Bambico, D. Minton, A. Miller, M. Mejia, N. Kalei, B. Wong and E. W. Glazier. 2016. Restoring ecosystems, restoring community: Socioeconomic and cultural dimensions of a community-based coral reef restoration project. Regional Environmental Change 16(2):301-313. DOI: 10.1007/s10113-013-0572-x. (link )

Schemmel, E., A. M. Friedlander, P. Andrade, K. Keakealani, L. M. Castro, C. Wiggins, B. A. Wilcox, Y. Yasutake and J. N. Kittinger. 2016. The codevelopment of coastal fisheries monitoring methods to support local management. Ecology and Society 21(4):Art. 34. DOI: 10.5751/ES-08818-210434. (link )

Teneva, L. T., M. A. McManus, C. Jerolmon, A. B. Neuheimer, S. J. Clark, G. Walker, K. Kaho'ohalahala, E. Shimabukuro, C. Ostrander and J. N. Kittinger. 2016. Understanding reef flat sediment regimes and hydrodynamics can inform erosion mitigation on land. Collabra 2(1):Art. 1. DOI: 10.1525/collabra.25. (link )


Aguilera, S. E., J. Cole, E. M. Finkbeiner, E. Le Cornu, N. C. Ban, M. H. Carr, J. E. Cinner, L. B. Crowder, S. Gelcich, C. C. Hicks, J. N. Kittinger, R. G. Martone, D. Malone, C. Pomeroy, R. M. Starr, S. Seram, R. Zuercher and K. Broad. 2015. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: Insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay. PLOS One 10(3):e0118992. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118992. (link )

Devillers, R., R. L. Pressey, A. Grech, J. N. Kittinger, G. J. Edgar, T. Ward and R. Watson. 2015. Reinventing residual reserves in the sea: Are we favouring ease of establishment over need for protection?. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 25(4):485-504. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2445. (link )

Henly-Shepard, S., C. Anderson, K. Burnett, L. J. Cox, J. N. Kittinger and M. Ka'aumoana. 2015. Quantifying household social resilience: A place-based approach in a rapidly transforming community. Natural Hazards 75(1):343-383. DOI: 10.1007/s11069-014-1328-8. (link )

Jouffray, J., M. Nystrom, I. D. Williams, L. M. Wedding, J. N. Kittinger and G. J. Williams. 2015. Identifying multiple coral reef regimes and their drivers across the Hawaiian archipelago. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 370(1659):20130268. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0268. (link )

Kelly, R. P., A. L. Erickson, L. A. Mease, W. Battista, J. N. Kittinger and R. M. Fujita. 2015. Embracing thresholds for better environmental management. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 370(1659):20130276. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0276. (link )

Kittinger, J. N., L. T. Teneva, H. Koike, K. A. Stamoulis, D. S. Kittinger, K. L. Oleson, E. Conklin, M. Gomes, B. Wilcox and A. M. Friedlander. 2015. From reef to table: Social and ecological factors affecting coral reef fisheries, artisanal seafood supply chains, and seafood security. PLOS One 10(8):e0123856. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123856. (link )

Selkoe, K. A., T. Blenckner, M. R. Caldwell, L. B. Crowder, A. L. Erickson, T. E. Essington, J. A. Estes, R. M. Fujita, B. S. Halpern, M. Hunsicker, C. V. Kappel, R. P. Kelly, J. N. Kittinger, P. S. Levin, J. M. Lynham, M. E. Mach, R. G. Martone, L. A. Mease, A. K. Salomon, J. F. Samhouri, C. Scarborough, A. C. Stier, C. White and J. Zedler. 2015. Principles for managing marine ecosystems prone to tipping points. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 1(5):1-18. DOI: 10.1890/EHS14-0024.1. (link )

Thurstan, R. H., L. McClenachan, L. B. Crowder, J. A. Drew, J. N. Kittinger, P. S. Levin, C. M. Roberts and J. M. Pandolfi. 2015. Filling historical data gaps to foster solutions in marine conservation. Ocean & Coastal Management 115(Oct):31-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.04.019. (link )

Wedding, L. M., S. M. Reiter, C. R. Smith, R. M. Gjerde, J. N. Kittinger, A. M. Friedlander, S. D. Gaines, M. R. Clark, A. M. Thurnherr, S. M. Hardy and L. B. Crowder. 2015. Managing mining of the deep seabed. Science 349(6244):144-145. DOI: 10.1126/science.aac6647. (link )


Ayers, A. L. and J. N. Kittinger. 2014. Emergence of co-management governance for Hawai'i coral reef fisheries. Global Environmental Change 28(Sep):251-262. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.07.006. (link )

Kittinger, J. N., J. Z. Koehn, E. Le Cornu, N. C. Ban, M. Gopnik, M. Armsby, C. Brooks, M. H. Carr, J. E. Cinner, A. Cravens, M. D'Iorio, A. L. Erickson, E. M. Finkbeiner, M. M. Foley, R. Fujita, S. Gelcich, K. St. Martin, E. Prahler, D. R. Reineman, J. Shackeroff, C. White, M. R. Caldwell and L. B. Crowder. 2014. A practical approach for putting people in ecosystem-based ocean planning. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(8):448-456. DOI: 10.1890/130267. (link )

Le Cornu, E., J. N. Kittinger, J. Z. Koehn, E. M. Finkbeiner and L. B. Crowder. 2014. Current practice and future prospects for social data in coastal and ocean planning. Conservation Biology 28(4):902-911. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12310. (link )

McClenachan, L., B. P. Neal, D. Al-Abdulrazzak, T. Witkin, K. Fisher and J. N. Kittinger. 2014. Do community supported fisheries (CSFs) improve sustainability?. Fisheries Research 157(Sep):62-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.fishres.2014.03.016. (link )

Van Houtan, K. S. and J. N. Kittinger. 2014. Historical commercial exploitation and the current status of Hawaiian green turtles. Biological Conservation 170(Feb):20-27. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.11.011. (link )


Foley, M. M., M. H. Armsby, E. E. Prahler, M. R. Caldwell, A. L. Erickson, J. N. Kittinger, L. B. Crowder and P. S. Levin. 2013. Improving ocean management through the use of ecological principles and integrated ecosystem assessments. BioScience 63(8):619-631. DOI: 10.1525/bio.2013.63.8.5. (link )

Friedlander, A. M., J. M. Shackeroff and J. N. Kittinger. 2013. Customary marine resource knowledge and use in contemporary Hawai‘i.. Pacific Science 67(3):441-460. DOI: 10.2984/67.3.10. (link )

Kittinger, J. N. 2013. Human dimensions of small-scale and traditional fisheries in the Asia-Pacific region. Pacific Science 67(3):315-325. DOI: 10.2984/67.3.1. (link )

Kittinger, J. N. 2013. Participatory fishing community assessments to support coral reef fisheries comanagement. Pacific Science 67(3):361-381. DOI: 10.2984/67.3.5. (link )

Kittinger, J. N., E. M. Finkbeiner, N. C. Ban, K. Broad, M. H. Carr, J. E. Cinner, S. Gelcich, M. L. Cornwell, J. Z. Koehn, X. Basurto, R. M. Fujita, M. R. Caldwell and L. B. Crowder. 2013. Emerging frontiers in social-ecological systems research for sustainability of small-scale fisheries. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5(3-4):352-357. DOI: 10.1016/j.cosust.2013.06.008. (link )

Kittinger, J. N., K. S. Van Houtan, L. E. McClenachan and A. L. Lawrence. 2013. Using historical data to assess the biogeography of population recovery. Ecography: Pattern and Process in Ecology 36(8):868-872. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00245.x. (link )

Koehn, J. Z., D. R. Reineman and J. N. Kittinger. 2013. Progress and promise in spatial human dimensions research for ecosystem-based ocean planning. Marine Policy 42(Nov):31-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.01.015. (link )

McClenachan, L. and J. N. Kittinger. 2013. Multicentury trends and the sustainability of coral reef fisheries in Hawai‘i and Florida. Fish and Fisheries 14(3):239-255. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2012.00465.x. (link )

Van Houtan, K. S., L. McClenachan and J. N. Kittinger. 2013. Seafood menus reflect long-term ocean changes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11(6):289-290. DOI: 10.1890/13.WB.015. (link )

Wedding, L. M., A. Friedlander, J. N. Kittinger, L. Watling, S. D. Gaines, M. Bennett, S. M. Hardy and C. R. Smith. 2013. From principles to practice: A spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280(1773):20131684. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1684. (link )


Kittinger, J. N., T. M. Bambico, T. K. Watson and E. W. Glazier. 2012. Sociocultural significance of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal and the human dimensions of conservation planning. Endangered Species Research 17(2):139-156. DOI: 10.3354/esr00423. (link )

Kittinger, J. N., E. M. Finkbeiner, E. W. Glazier and L. B. Crowder. 2012. Human dimensions of coral reef social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society 17(4):Art. 17. DOI: 10.5751/ES-05115-170417. (link )

Van Houtan, K. S., J. N. Kittinger, A. L. Lawrence, C. Yoshinaga, V. R. Born and A. Fox. 2012. Hawksbill sea turtles in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 11(1):117-121. DOI: 10.2744/CCB-0984.1. (link )


Kittinger, J. N., A. Dowling, N. A. Milne and P. Olsson. 2011. Marine protected areas, multiple-agency management, and monumental surprise in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Marine Biology 2011:Art. 241374. DOI: 10.1155/2011/241374. (link )

Kittinger, J. N., J. M. Pandolfi, J. H. Blodgett, T. L. Hunt, H. Jiang, K. Maly, L. E. McClenachan, J. K. Schultz and B. A. Wilcox. 2011. Historical reconstruction reveals recovery in Hawaiian coral reefs. PLOS One 6(10):e25460. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025460. (link )

Watson, T. K., J. N. Kittinger, J. S. Walters and T. D. Schofield. 2011. Culture, conservation and conflict: Assessing the human dimensions of Hawaiian monk seal recovery. Aquatic Mammals 37(3):386-396. DOI: 10.1578/AM.37.3.2011.386. (link )


Kittinger, J. N. and A. L. Ayers. 2010. Shoreline armoring, risk management, and coastal resilience under rising seas. Coastal Management 38(6):634-653. DOI: 10.1080/08920753.2010.529038. (link )

Kittinger, J. N., K. N. Duin and B. A. Wilcox. 2010. Commercial fishing, conservation and compatibility in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Marine Policy 24(2):208-217. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2009.06.007. (link )


Kittinger, J. N., K. M. Coontz, Z. Yuan, D. Han, X. Zhao and B. A. Wilcox. 2009. Toward holistic evaluation and assessment: Linking ecosystems and human well-being for the Three Gorges Dam. EcoHealth 6(4):601-613. DOI: 10.1007/s10393-010-0285-2. (link )


Kittinger, J. N. 2008. The legal nexus in U.S. fisheries management: Application in the Hawaiian longline fishery litigation. University of Hawai'i Law Review 30(1):269-293. (link )


Powers, S. P. and J. N. Kittinger. 2002. Hydrodynamic mediation of predator-prey interactions: Differential patterns of prey susceptibility and predator success explained by variation in water flow. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 273(2):171-187. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00162-4. (link )



Kittinger, J. N., L. McClenachan, K. B. Gedan and L. K. Blight eds. 2015. Marine Historical Ecology in Conservation: Applying the Past to Manage for the Future. University of California Press. ISBN: 978-0520276949.

Book Chapters


Finkbeiner, E. M., K. L. Oleson and J. N. Kittinger. 2017. Social resilience in the Anthropocene ocean. Pp. Chapter 5 In: Levin, P. S. and M. Poe eds., Conservation for the Anthropocene Ocean: Interdisciplinary Science in Support of Nature and People. Academic Press. ISBN: 9780128053751.


Ban, N. C., J. N. Kittinger, J. M. Pandolfi, R. L. Pressey, R. H. Thurstan, M. J. Lybolt and S. Hart. 2015. Incorporating historical perspectives into systematic marine conservation planning. Pp. 207-234 In: Kittinger, J. N., L. McClenachan, K. B. Gedan and L. K. Blight eds., Marine Historical Ecology in Conservation: Applying the Past to Manage the Future. University of California Press. ISBN: 978-0520276949.

Cinner, J. E. and J. N. Kittinger. 2015. Linkages between social systems and coral reefs. Pp. 215-222 In: Mora, C. ed., Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 9781107089181.

Finkbeiner, E. M., A. L. Ayers, J. N. Kittinger and L. B. Crowder. 2015. A comparison of small-scale fisheries governability: Baja California Sur, Mexico and the Hawaiian Islands. Pp. 199-221 In: Jentoft, S. and R. Chuenpagdee eds., Interactive Governance for Small-Scale Fisheries. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-17034-3_11. ISBN: 978-3-319-17034-3.

Kittinger, J. N., L. K. Blight, K. B. Gedan and L. McClenachan. 2015. Managing human legacies in a changing sea: An introduction. Pp. 1-12 In: Kittinger, J. N., L. McClenachan, K. B. Gedan and L. K. Blight eds., Marine Historical Ecology in Conservation: Applying the Past to Manager for the Future. University of California Press. ISBN: 978-0520276949.

Kittinger, J. N., J. E. Cinner, S. Aswani and A. T. White. 2015. Back to the future: Integrating customary practices and institutions into co-management of small-scale fisheries. Pp. 135-160 In: Kittinger, J. N., L. McClenachan, K. B. Gedan and L. K. Blight eds., Marine Historical Ecology and Conservation: Applying the Past to Manage the Future. University of California Press. ISBN: 978-0520276949.


Friedlander, A., K. A. Stamoulis, J. N. Kittinger, J. C. Drazen and B. N. Tissot. 2014. Chapter Five - Understanding the scale of marine protection in Hawai'i: From community-based management to the remote northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pp. 153-203 In: Johnson, M. L. and J. Sandell eds., Marine Managed Areas and Fisheries. Vol 69. Academic Press. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800214-8.00005-0. ISBN: 978-0-12-800214-8. (link )

McIntosh, N., K. Maly and J. N. Kittinger. 2014. Integrating traditional ecological knowledge and community engagement in marine mammal protected areas. Pp. 163-176 In: Higham, J., L. Bejder and R. Williams eds., Whale-watching: Sustainable Tourism and Ecological Management. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 978-0521195973.



Kittinger, J. N., D. S. Kittinger, E. H. Hartge and L. B. Crowder. 2013. Coastal Resource Use and Food Security in Hawaiian Communities. Conservation International's Hawai'i Fish Trust. Final (link )


Kittinger, J. N., D. J. Skillings, K. K. Carvalho, L. L. Reeve, M. Hutchinson, K. Cullison, J. Shackeroff, M. Chow and J. Lemus. 2009. Reconciling ecosystem-based management and focal resource conservation in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series ONMS-09-04. (link )