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Leah Gerber

Leah Gerber

Founding Director, Center for Biodiversity Outcomes, Global Institute of Sustainability and Innovation


School of Life Sciences
Arizona State University
PO Box 874501
Tempe, AZ 85287-4501


  • Senior Global Futures Scientist, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Futures Laboratory
  • Founding Director, Center for Biodiversity Outcomes, Global Institute of Sustainability and Innovation
  • Professor, School of Life Sciences, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
  • Faculty Affiliate, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes


Leah Gerber is a professor of conservation science in the School of Life Sciences and founding director of the Center for Biodiversity Outcomes (CBO) at Arizona State University. Gerber’s research, teaching, and leadership advance the integration of science in decision processes to achieve sustainable biodiversity outcomes.

A population ecologist and marine conservation biologist by training, Gerber received her Ph.D. in wildlife ecology in 1998 from the University of Washington, where her doctoral work included the development of quantitative criteria for decision-making under the United States Endangered Species Act. Before joining Arizona State University as a professor in 2013, Gerber was a postdoctoral fellow at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara, CA. She returned to Santa Barbara in 2005 as a distinguished visiting associate professor at UC Santa Barbara’s Bren School of Environmental Science and Management. In 2007, Gerber was recognized by ASU as an Exemplar Associate Professor. Most recently (2017-18), she was a Fulbright fellow at the Universidad San Francisco in Quito and the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Gerber is a Fellow of the Ecological Society of America and the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program. In 2020, Gerber became a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

As one of the world’s leading conservation scientists, Gerber frequently serves on globally significant bodies charting the future course of conservation. She served as lead author of the Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, an initiative of the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Gerber regularly provides guidance to international agencies and corporate bodies, including the International Whaling Commission, the UN World Conservation and Monitoring Center, and the World Business Council on Sustainable Development. Gerber has served on the Board of Governors for the Ecological Society of America, the Society for Conservation Biology, the Society for Marine Mammalogy. She currently serves on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Committee and the Scientific Advisory Boards for Defenders of Wildlife and the Charles Darwin Foundation.

Gerber is passionately committed to communicating the relevance of science in tackling the complex environmental challenges of the 21st century. She communicates regularly with the media as an expert source on global change and biodiversity and has been interviewed by The Economist, POLITICO, Time, Reuters, Outside Magazine, Science, WIRED Science, National Geographic, Bloomberg, The Washington Post, and ABC News. She also writes regularly for high-impact general audience platforms, including Nature, Pacific Standard, The Christian Science Monitor, and The Conversation.

Since founding CBO in 2014, Gerber’s vision and strategic leadership have established CBO as a center of interdisciplinary academic excellence, where CBO’s faculty, partners and students are making key discoveries and creating solutions to mitigate biodiversity loss. CBO draws upon the interdisciplinary expertise of 150 faculty affiliates and partners with dozens of local, national and international organizations in the NGO, corporate, business and academic sectors to bring scientific knowledge into conservation action. Gerber is constantly pioneering new models of engagement as part of the NSF Science of Science and Innovation Policy program. For example, she works with the corporate sector in developing innovative methods of biodiversity conservation, such as conservation finance and corporate biodiversity accountability.

Gerber’s own research reveals new approaches to conservation planning and management, including in conservation priority setting, ecosystem-based management, adaptive monitoring and management, marine recreation, endangered species recovery plans, and estimating extinction risk. Her work draws on natural history, primary data collection, theories of behavioral ecology, quantitative demographic approaches and systems theory. She has published more than 150 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters and frequently publishes in leading scientific journals such as Science, Nature, PNAS, American Scientist and Ecology Letters. Her research has garnered a broad base of funding, including a National Science Foundation CAREER Award and the Lenfest Ocean Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts.

Among the many impactful outcomes emerging from Gerber’s research-based collaborations, Gerber produced a practical handbook on how to demographic analysis in extinction risk estimates; a decision tool to examine consequences for resource allocation strategies on species protection; an evidence-based restoration program to recover the endangered white abalone; and ecosystem models that inform the global management of whales and fisheries.

As a teacher and mentor, Gerber focuses on training a new generation of conservation leaders. Her teaching portfolio includes environmental communication and leadership, marine conservation biology, quantitative methods in conservation and ecology and environmental modeling. Gerber recently established a new Graduate Certificate in Environmental Communication and Leadership at ASU to prepare and empower students to address the world’s increasingly complex sustainability challenges. Gerber has served as the primary advisor for 13 doctoral students and has been a committee member to 16 doctoral, 18 masters and 22 undergraduate students.

Gerber is a senior sustainability scientist in Arizona State University’s Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability, a fellow in the Institute for the Future of Innovation in Society, an honors faculty in the Barrett Honors College, an affiliate faculty in Applied Mathematics for Social Sciences and an affiliate faculty in the School of Public Affairs.

Originally from the coast of California, Gerber enjoys hiking, yoga, traveling, gardening and spending time with her family.

Follow Leah Gerber on Twitter @LeahLeopold and the Center for Biodiversity Outcomes @BiodiversityASU

Subscribe to her YouTube channel.


  • PhD, Wildlife Ecology, University of Washington - Seattle, 1998
  • MMA, Marine Policy, University of Washington - Seattle, 1993
  • BA, Environmental Biology, Mills College, 1992


External Links

Journal Articles


Addison, P. F., P. J. Stephenson, J. W. Bull, G. Carbone, M. Burgman, M. J. Burgass, L. R. Gerber, P. Howard, N. McCormick, L. McRae, K. E. Reuter, M. Starkey and E. J. Milner-Gulland. 2020. Bringing sustainability to life: A framework to guide biodiversity indicator development for business performance management. Business Strategy and the Environment 29(8):3303-3313. DOI: 0.1002/bse.2573. (link )

Amrein, A., H. M. Guzman, K. C. Surrey, B. Polidoro and L. Gerber. 2020. Impacts of whale watching on the behavior of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangeliae) in the coast of Panama. Frontiers in Marine Science 7:601277. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.601277. (link )

Borrelle, S. B., J. Ringma, K. Lavender Law, C. C. Monnahan, L. Lebreton, A. McGivern, E. Murphy, J. R. Jambeck, G. H. Leonard, M. A. Hilleary, M. Eriksen, H. P. Possingham, H. De Frond, L. R. Gerber, B. Polidoro, A. Tahir, M. Bernard, N. Mallos, M. Barnes and C. M. Rochman. 2020. Predicted growth in plastic waste exceeds efforts to mitigate plastic pollution. Science 369(6510):1515-1518. DOI: 10.1126/science.aba3656 . (link )

Gerber, L. R. 2020. A global strategy for preventing the next pandemic. Issues in Science and Technology April 10, 2020. (link )

Gerber, L. R., C. J. Barton, S. H. Cheng and D. M. Anderson. 2020. Producing actionable science in conservation: Best practices for organizations and individuals. Conservation Science and Practice 2(12):e295. DOI: 10.1111/csp2.295. (link )

Halpern, B. S., E. Berlow, R. Williams, E. T. Borer, F. W. Davis, A. Dobson, B. J. Enquist, H. E. Froehlich, L. R. Gerber, C. J. Lortie, M. I. O'Connor, H. Regan, D. P. Vazquez and G. Willard. 2020. Ecological synthesis and its role in advancing knowledge. BioScience 70(11):1005-1014. DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biaa105. (link )

Kemppinen, K. M., P. M. Collins, D. G. Hole, C. Wolf, W. J. Ripple and L. R. Gerber. 2020. Global reforestation and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 34(5):1221-1228. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13478. (link )


Malcom, J., M. W. Schwartz, M. Evansen, W. J. Ripple, S. Polasky, L. R. Gerber, T. E. Lovejoy, L. M. Talbot and J. R. Miller. 2019. Solving the biodiversity crisis with funding. Science 365(6459):1256. DOI: (link )


Alvarez-Romero, J. G., A. Munguía‐Vega, M. Beger, M. del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, A. N. Suarez-Castillo, G. G. Gurney, R. L. Pressey, L. R. Gerber, H. N. Morzaria-Luna, H. Reyes-Bonilla, V. M. Adams, M. Kolb, E. M. Graham, J. VanDerWal, A. Castillo-Lopez, G. Hinojosa-Arango, D. Petatan-Ramirez, M. Moreno-Baez, C. P. Godinez-Reyes and J. Torre. 2018. Designing connected marine reserves in the face of global warming. Golbal Change Biology 24(2):e671-e691. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13989. (link )

del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, M., A. N. Suarez-Castillo, J. Torre, J. M. Anderies and L. R. Gerber. 2018. The role of stakeholder perceptions and institutions for marine reserve efficacy in the Midriff Islands Region, Gulf of California, Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management 162(Aug):181-192. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.01.024. (link )

Fujitani, M. L., E. P. Fenichel, J. Torre and L. R. Gerber. 2018. Synthesizing ecological and human use information to understand and manage coastal change. Ocean & Coastal Management 162(Aug):100-109. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.10.001. (link )

Gerber, L. R. and D. Raik. 2018. Conservation science needs new institutional models for achieving outcomes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16(8):438-439. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1951. (link )

Gerber, L. R., M. C. Runge, R. F. Maloney, G. D. Iacona, C. A. Drew, S. Avery-Gomm, J. Brazill-Boast, D. Crouse, R. S. Epanchin-Niell, S. B. Hall, L. A. Maguire, T. Male, D. Morgan, J. Newman, H. P. Possingham, L. Rumpff, K. C. Weiss, R. S. Wilson and M. A. Zablan. 2018. Endangered species recovery: A resource allocation problem. Science 362(6412):284-286. DOI: 10.1126/science.aat8434. (link )

Levin, P. S., T. E. Essington, K. N. Marshall, L. E. Koehn, L. G. Anderson, A. Bundy, C. Carothers, F. Coleman, L. R. Gerber, J. H. Grabowski, E. Houde, O. P. Jensen, C. Mollmann, K. Rose, J. N. Sanchirico and A. D. Smith. 2018. Building effective fishery ecosystem plans. Marine Policy 92(Jun):48-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2018.01.019. (link )

Marshall, K. N., P. S. Levin, T. E. Essington, L. E. Koehn, L. G. Anderson, A. Bundy, C. Carothers, F. Coleman, L. R. Gerber, J. H. Grabowski, E. Houde, O. P. Jensen, C. Mollmann, K. Rose, J. N. Sanchirico and A. D. Smith. 2018. Ecosystem-based fisheries management for social-ecological systems: Renewing the focus in the United States with next generation Fishery Ecosystem Plans. Conservation Letters 11(1):e12367. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12367. (link )

Noziglia, A. J., J. K. Abbott, B. A. Polidoro and L. R. Gerber. 2018. Flame retardant contamination and seafood sustainability. Sustainability 10(4):1070. DOI: 10.3390/su10041070. (link )


Enquist, C. A., S. T. Jackson, G. M. Garfin, F. W. Davis, L. R. Gerber, J. A. Littell, J. L. Tank, A. J. Terando, T. U. Wall, B. S. Halpern, J. K. Hiers, T. L. Morelli, E. McNie, N. L. Stephenson, M. A. Williamson, C. A. Woodhouse, L. Yung, M. W. Brunson, K. R. Hall, L. M. Hallett, D. M. Lawson, M. A. Moritz, K. R. Nydick, A. Pairis, A. J. Ray, C. Regan, H. D. Safford, M. W. Schwartz and M. R. Shaw. 2017. Foundations of translational ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 15(10):541-550. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1733. (link )

Gerber, L. R. and D. Quiroga. 2017. Incentives for Galápagos protection. Science 358(6361):313-314. DOI: 10.1126/science.aar2049. (link )

Hallett, L. M., T. L. Morelli, L. R. Gerber, M. A. Moritz, M. W. Schwartz, N. L. Stephenson, J. L. Tank, M. A. Williamson and C. A. Woodhouse. 2017. Navigating translational ecology: Creating opportunities for scientist participation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 15(10):578-586. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1734. (link )

Huang, B., J. K. Abbott, E. P. Fenichel, R. Muneepeerakul, C. Perrings and L. Gerber. 2017. Testing the feasibility of a hypothetical whaling-conservation permit market in Norway. Conservation Biology 31(4):809-817. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12916. (link )

Possingham, H. P. and L. R. Gerber. 2017. Ecology: The effect of conservation spending. Conservation Biology 551(Nov):309-310. DOI: 10.1038/nature24158. (link )

Puritty, C., L. R. Strickland, E. Alia, B. Blonder, E. Klein, M. T. Kohl, E. McGee, M. Quintana, R. E. Ridley, B. Tellman and L. R. Gerber. 2017. Without inclusion, diversity initiatives may not be enough. Science 357(6356):1101-1102. DOI: 10.1126/science.aai9054. (link )

Thiele, T. and L. R. Gerber. 2017. Innovative financing for the High Seas. Aquatic Conservation 27(51):89-99. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2794. (link )


Gerber, L. R. 2016. Conservation triage or injurious neglect in endangered species recovery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(13):3563–3566. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1525085113. (link )

Gerber, L. R. 2016. Write Back: Beyond the whaling stalemate. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14(4):182-183. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1259. (link )

Gerber, L. R., P. Bakker, S. Bonini and S. McCormick. 2016. Guest Editorial: The marriage of business and ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14(1):3. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1209. (link )


Gerber, L. R. 2015. Guest Editorial: A deal with Japan on whaling?. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(7):347. DOI: 10.1890/1540-9295-13.7.347. (link )

Hernandez-Camacho, C. J., V. J. Bakker, D. Aurioles-Gamboa, J. Laake and L. R. Gerber. 2015. The use of surrogate data in demographic population viability analysis: A case study of sea lions. PLOS One 10(9):e0139158. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139158. (link )

Troyer, C. M. and L. R. Gerber. 2015. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species. Conservation Biology 29(5): 1423–1433. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12552. (link )


Gerber, L. R., J. D. Anadon, C. D'Agrosa and A. Gondor. 2014. Conservation prioritization to conservation action in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Journal of Conservation Planning 10:1-16. (link )

Gerber, L. R., C. Costello and S. D. Gaines. 2014. Conservation markets for wildlife management with case studies from whaling. Ecological Applications 24(1):4-14. DOI: 10.1890/12-1919.1. (link )

Gerber, L. R., C. Costello and S. D. Gaines. 2014. Facilitate, don’t forbid, trade between conservationists and resource harvesters. Ecological Applications 24(1):23-24. DOI: 10.1890/13-1541.1. (link )

Gerber, L. R., M. del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, M. I. O'Connor and E. R. Selig. 2014. . Climate change impacts on connectivity in the ocean: Implications for conservation. Ecosphere 5(3):Art. 33. DOI: 10.1890/ES13-00336.1. (link )

Gerber, L. R. and E. R. White. 2014. Two-sex matrix models in assessing population viability: when do male dynamics matter?. Journal of Applied Ecology 51(1):270-278. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12177. (link )

Senko, J. F., E. R. White, S. S. Heppell and L. R. Gerber. 2014. Review: Comparing bycatch mitigation strategies for vulnerable marine megafauna. Animal Conservation 17(1):5-18. DOI: 10.1111/acv.12051. (link )

Tallis, H., J. Lubchenco, L. R. Gerber and . 238 co-signatories. 2014. Working together: A call for inclusive conservation. Nature 515(7525):27-28. DOI: 10.1038/515027a. (link )


Anadon, J. D., M. del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, B. D. Best and L. R. Gerber. 2013. Habitat-specific larval dispersal and marine connectivity: implications for spatial conservation planning. Ecosphere 4(7):Art. 82. DOI: 10.1890/ES13-00119.1. (link )

Cuddington, K., M. Fortin, L. R. Gerber, A. Hastings, A. M. Liebhold, M. I. O'Connor and C. Ray. 2013. Process-based models are required to manage ecological systems in a changing world. Ecosphere 4(2):Art. 20. DOI: 10.1890/ES12-00178.1. (link )

Gerber, L. R., R. Karimi and T. P. Fitzgerald. 2013. Write Back: Does trophic level predict seafood sustainability?. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11(3):122-123. DOI: 10.1890/13.WB.007. (link )

Gregory, R., J. Arval and L. R. Gerber. 2013. Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate. Conservation Biology 27(6):1212-1221. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12165. (link )

Minteer, B. A. and L. R. Gerber. 2013. Buying whales to save them. Issues in Science and Technology Online 29(3):58-68. (link )

Rife, A. N., O. Aburto-Oropeza, P. A. Hastings, B. Erisman, F. Ballantyne, J. Wielgus, E. Sala and L. Gerber. 2013. Long-term effectiveness of a multi-use marine protected area on reef fish assemblages and fisheries landings. Journal of Environmental Management 117(Mar):276-283. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.12.029. (link )

Wildermuth, R. P., J. D. Anadon and L. R. Gerber. 2013. Monitoring behavior: Assessing population status with rapid behavioral assessment. Conservation Letters 6(2):86-97. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00298.x. (link )


Costello, C., S. Gaines and L. R. Gerber. 2012. Conservation science: A market approach to saving the whales. Nature 481(7380):139-140. DOI: 1038/481139a. (link )

Dee, L. and L. R. Gerber. 2012. Application of decision theory to conservation planning and management. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):11. (link )

Flatz, R., M. Gonzalez-Suarez, J. K. Young, C. J. Hernandez-Camacho, A. J. Immel and L. R. Gerber. 2012. Weak polygyny in California sea lions and the potential for alternative mating tactics. PLOS One 7(3):e33654. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033654. (link )

Fujitani, M. L., E. P. Fenichel, J. Torre and L. R. Gerber. 2012. Implementation of a marine reserve has a rapid but short-lived effect on recreational angler use. Ecological Applications 22(2):597-605. DOI: 10.1890/11-0603.1. (link )

Gerber, L. R. 2012. The scientific whaling loophole. Science 337(6098):1038. DOI: 10.1126/science.337.6098.1038-a. (link )

Gerber, L. R., R. Karimi and T. P. Fitzgerald. 2012. Sustaining seafood for public health. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10(9):487-493. DOI: 10.1890/120003. (link )


Anadon, J. D., C. D'Agrosa, A. Gondor and L. R. Gerber. 2011. Quantifying the spatial ecology of wide-ranging marine species in the Gulf of California: Implications for marine conservation planning. PLOS One 6(12):e28400. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028400. (link )

French, S. S., M. Gonzalez-Suarez, J. K. Young, S. Durham and L. R. Gerber. 2011. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). PLOS One 6(3):e17686. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017686. (link )

Gerber, L. R. 2011. What is conservation biology?. Nature Education Knowledge 1(10):14.

Gerber, L. R., J. A. Estes, T. G. Crawford, L. E. Peavey and A. J. Read. 2011. Managing for extinction? Conflicting conservation objectives in a large marine reserve. Conservation Letters 3(6):417-422. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00197.x. (link )

Gerber, L. R. and M. Gonzalez-Suarez. 2011. Population viability analysis: Origins and contributions. Nature Education Knowledge 1(11):15.

Hughes, Z. D., E. P. Fenichel and L. R. Gerber. 2011. The potential impact of labor choices on the efficacy of marine conservation strategies. PLOS One 6(8):e23722. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023722. (link )

Underwood, J. G., J. Francis and L. R. Gerber. 2011. Incorporating biodiversity conservation and recreational wildlife values into smart growth land use planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 100(1-2):136-143. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.11.014. (link )


Chirakkal, H. and L. R. Gerber. 2010. Short and long-term population response to changes in vital rates: Implications for demographic population viability analysis. Ecological Applications 20(3):783-788. DOI: 10.1890/09-0560.1. (link )

Flatz, R. and L. R. Gerber. 2010. First evidence for adoption in California sea lions. PLOS One 5(11):e12873. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013873. (link )

Gerber, L. R., M. Gonzalez-Suarez, C. J. Hernandez-Camacho, J. K. Young and J. L. Sabo. 2010. The cost of male aggression and polygyny in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). PLOS One 5(8):e12230. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012230. (link )

Gonzalez-Suarez, M., D. Aurioles-Gamboa and L. R. Gerber. 2010. Past exploitation of California sea lions did not lead to a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California. Ciencias Marinas 36(2):199-211. (link )

Green, D. S., J. K. Young, C. J. Hernandez-Camacho and L. R. Gerber. 2010. Developing a non-invasive indicator of pinniped health: Neonate behavior and growth in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Ciencias Marinas 36(3):311-321. (link )

Morissette, L., K. Kaschner and L. R. Gerber. 2010. Ecosystem models clarify the trophic role of whales off Northwest Africa. Marine Ecology Progress Series 404:289-302. DOI: 10.3354/meps08443. (link )

Morissette, L., K. Kaschner and L. R. Gerber. 2010. ‘Whales eat fish’? Demystifying the myth in the Caribbean marine ecosystem. Fish and Fisheries 11(4):388-404. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00366.x. (link )

Underwood, J., C. D'Agrosa and L. R. Gerber. 2010. Identifying conservation areas on the basis of alternative distribution data sets. Conservation Biology 24(1):162-170. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01303.x. (link )

Ward, E., H. Chirakkal, M. Gonzalez-Suarez, D. Aurioles-Gamboa, E. E. Holmes and L. R. Gerber. 2010. Inferring spatial structure from time series data: Using multivariate state-space models to detect metapopulation structure of California sea lions in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Journal of Applied Ecology 47(1):47-56. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01745.x. (link )

Wielgus, J., A. Balmford, T. B. Lewis, C. Mora and L. R. Gerber. 2010. Coral reef quality and recreation fees in marine protected areas. Conservation Letters 3(1):38-44. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00084.x. (link )


Gerber, L. R., L. Morissette, K. Kaschner and D. Pauly. 2009. Should whales be culled to increase fishery yield?. Science 323(5916):880-881. DOI: 10.1126/science.1169981. (link )

Gonzalez-Suarez, M., R. Flatz, D. Aurioles-Gamboa, P. Hedrick and L. R. Gerber. 2009. Isolation by distance among California sea lion populations in Mexico: Redefining management stocks. Molecular Ecology 18(6):1088-1099. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04093.x. (link )

Holcomb, K., J. K. Young and L. R. Gerber. 2009. The influence of human disturbance on the behavior of California sea lions during the breeding season. Animal Conservation 12(6):592-598. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00290.x. (link )

Stamieszkin, K., J. Wielgus and L. R. Gerber. 2009. Management of a marine protected area for sustainability and conflict resolution: Lessons from Loreto Bay National Park (Baja California Sur, Mexico). Ocean & Coastal Management 52(9):449-458. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.07.006. (link )

Wielgus, J., L. R. Gerber, E. Sala and J. Bennett. 2009. Including risk in stated-preference economic valuations: Experiments on choices for marine recreation. Journal of Environmental Management 90(11):3401-3409. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.05.010. (link )


Gonzalez-Suarez, M. and L. R. Gerber. 2008. . A behaviorally explicit demographic model integrating habitat selection and population dynamics in California sea lions. Conservation Biology 22(6):1608-1618. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00995.x. (link )

Gonzalez-Suarez, M. and L. R. Gerber. 2008. Habitat preferences of California sea lions: Implications for conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 89(6):1521-1528. (link )

Hernandez-Camacho, C. J., D. Aurioles-Gamboa and L. R. Gerber. 2008. Age-specific birth rates of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 24(3):664-676. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2008.00199.x. (link )

Hernandez-Camacho, C. J., D. Aurioles-Gamboa, J. Laake and L. R. Gerber. 2008. Survival rates of the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, in Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 89(4):1059-1066. DOI: 10.1644/07-MAMM-A-404.1. (link )

Jacobs, D. F., C. J. Hernandez-Camacho, J. K. Young and L. R. Gerber. 2008. Determinants of outcomes of agonistic interactions among male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Mammalogy 89(5):1212-1217. (link )

Robertson, K., C. W. Runcorn, J. K. Young and L. R. Gerber. 2008. Spatial and temporal patterns of territory use of male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86(4):237-244. DOI: 10.1139/Z07-136. (link )

Rowell, K., K. W. Fleesa, D. L. Dettman, M. J. Roman, L. R. Gerber and L. T. Findley. 2008. Diverting the Colorado River leads to a dramatic life history shift in an endangered marine fish. Biological Conservation 141(4):1138-1148. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2008.02.013. (link )

Underwood, J. G., C. J. Hernandez-Camacho, D. Aurioles-Gamboa and L. R. Gerber. 2008. Estimating sustainable bycatch rates for California sea lion populations in the Gulf of California. Conservation Biology 22(3):701-710. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00919.x. (link )

Wielgus, J., M. Gonzalez-Suarez, D. Aurioles-Gamboa and L. R. Gerber. 2008. A noninvasive demographic assessment of sea lions based on stage-specific abundances. Ecological Applications 18(5):1287-1296. DOI: 10.1890/07-0892.1. (link )

Wielgus, J., E. Sala and L. R. Gerber. 2008. Assessing the ecological and economic benefits of a no-take marine reserve. Ecological Economics 57(1):32-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.04.019. (link )

Young, J. K. and L. R. Gerber. 2008. The influence of social composition on reproductive behavior of territorial male California sea lions. Aquatic Mammals 34(1):102-108. DOI: 10.1578/AM.34.1.2008.102. (link )

Young, J. K., M. Gonzalez-Suarez and L. R. Gerber. 2008. Determinants of agonistic interactions in California sea lions. Behaviour 145(12):1797-1810. (link )


Gaines, S. D., B. Gaylord, L. R. Gerber, A. Hastings and B. P. Kinlan. 2007. Connecting places: The ecological consequences of dispersal in the sea. Oceanography 20(3):90-99. DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2007.32. (link )

Gerber, L. R., A. C. Keller and D. P. DeMaster. 2007. Ten thousand and increasing: Is the western Arctic population of bowhead whale endangered?. Biological Conservation 137(4):577-583. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.03.024. (link )

Gerber, L. R., J. Wielgus and E. Sala. 2007. A decision framework for the adaptive management of an exploited species with implications for marine reserves. Conservation Biology 21(6):1594-1602. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00824.x. (link )

Sabo, J. L. and L. R. Gerber. 2007. Predicting extinction risk in spite of predator-prey oscillations. Ecological Applications 17(5):1543-1554. DOI: 10.1890/06-0630.1. (link )

Ward, E., R. Hilborn, R. G. Towell and L. R. Gerber. 2007. A state-space mixture approach for estimating catastrophic events in time series data. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 64(6):899-910. DOI: 10.1139/f07-060. (link )

Wielgus, J., F. Ballantyne, E. Sala and L. R. Gerber. 2007. Viability analysis of reef fish populations based on limited demographic information. Conservation Biology 21(2):447-454. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00644.x. (link )

Young, J. K., L. R. Gerber, C. D'Agrosa, R. Hilborn, G. Hopcraft and P. Arcese. 2007. Wildlife population increases in Serengeti National Park (commentary). Science 315(5820):1790-1791. DOI: 10.1126/science.315.5820.1790b. (link )

Young, J. K., C. J. Hernandez-Camacho and L. R. Gerber. 2007. Long-distance movement of a pinniped neonate. Marine Mammal Science 23(4):926-930. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.00138.x. (link )


Gerber, L. R. 2006. Including behavioral data in demographic models may improve estimates of population viability. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(8):419-427. DOI: 10.1890/1540-9295(2006)4[419:IBDIDM]2.0.CO;2. (link )

Gonzalez-Suarez, M., K. E. McCluney, D. Aurioles and L. R. Gerber. 2006. Incorporating uncertainty in spatial structure for viability predictions: A case study of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus). Animal Conservation 9(2):219-227. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00022.x. (link )

Zacharias, M. A., L. R. Gerber and K. D. Hyrenbach. 2006. Review of the Southern Ocean Sanctuary: Marine protected areas in the context of the International Whaling Commission Sanctuary Programme. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8(1):1-12. DOI: (link )


Gerber, L. R., M. Beger, M. A. McCarthy and H. P. Possingham. 2005. A theory for optimal monitoring of marine reserves. Ecology Letters 8(8):829-837. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00784.x. (link )

Gerber, L. R., S. S. Heppell, F. Ballantyne and E. Sala. 2005. The role of dispersal and demography in determining the efficacy of marine reserves. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62(4):863-871. DOI: 10.1139/f05-046. (link )

Gerber, L. R., K. D. Hyrenbach and M. A. Zacharias. 2005. Do the world’s largest protected areas conserve whales or whalers?. Science 307(5709):525-526. DOI: 10.1126/science.1106120. (link )

Gerber, L. R., H. McCallum, K. D. Lafferty, J. L. Sabo and A. Dobson. 2005. Exposing extinction risk analysis to pathogens: Is disease just another form of density dependence?. Ecological Applications 15(4):1402-1414. DOI: 10.1890/04-0880. (link )

Green, J. L., A. Hastings, P. W. Arzberger, F. J. Ayala, K. L. Cottingham, K. Cuddington, F. Davis, J. A. Dunne, M. Fortin, L. Gerber and M. Neubert. 2005. Complexity in ecology and conservation: Mathematical, statistical, and computational challenges. BioScience 55(6):501-510. DOI: 10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0501:CIEACM]2.0.CO;2. (link )

McCallum, H., L. Gerber and A. Jani. 2005. Does infectious disease influence the efficacy of marine protected areas? A theoretical framework. Journal of Applied Ecology 42(4):688-698. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01043.x. (link )

Papastavrou, V., R. Leaper, L. R. Gerber, K. D. Hyrenbach and M. A. Zacharias. 2005. Debating whale sanctuaries. Science 309(5731):51-52. DOI: 10.1126/science.309.5731.51e. (link )


Buenau, K. E. and L. R. Gerber. 2004. Developing recovery and monitoring strategies for the endemic Mount Graham Red Squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) in Arizona. Animal Conservation 7(1):17-22. DOI: 10.1017/S1367943003001124. (link )

Gerber, L. R., K. E. Buenau and G. VanBlaricom. 2004. Density dependence and risk of extinction in a small population of sea otters. Biodiversity & Conservation 13(14):2741-2757. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-004-2146-1. (link )

Gerber, L. R. and S. S. Heppell. 2004. The use of demographic sensitivity analysis in marine species conservation planning. Biological Conservation 120(1):121-128. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.01.029. (link )

Gerber, L. R., O. J. Reichman and J. Roughgarden. 2004. Food hoarding: Future value in optimal foraging decisions. Ecological Modelling 175(1):77-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2003.10.022. (link )

Gerber, L. R., M. T. Tinker, D. F. Doak, J. A. Estes and D. A. Jessup. 2004. Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: A case study of southern sea otters. Ecological Applications 14(5):1554-1565. DOI: 10.1890/03-5006. (link )

Harvell, D., R. Aronson, N. Baron, J. Connell, A. Dobson, S. Ellner, L. Gerber, K. Kim, A. Kuris, H. McCallum, K. Lafferty, B. McKay, J. Porter, M. Pascual, G. Smith, K. Sutherland and J. Ward. 2004. The rising tide of ocean diseases: Unsolved problems and research priorities. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(7):375-382. DOI: 10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0375:TRTOOD]2.0.CO;2. (link )

Hooker, S. K. and L. R. Gerber. 2004. Potential importance of megafauna: Marine reserves as a tool for ecosystem-based management?. BioScience 54(1):27-39. DOI: 10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0027:MRAATF]2.0.C;2. (link )

Keller, A. C. and L. R. Gerber. 2004. Monitoring and the Endangered Species Act: Revisiting the Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale. Endangered Species UPDATE 20(1):87-92. (link )

Micheli, F., P. Amarasekare, J. Bascompte and L. R. Gerber. 2004. Including species interactions in the design and evaluation of marine reserves: Some insights from a predator-prey model. Bulletin of Marine Science 74(3):653-669. (link )


Gerber, L. 2003. Delisting of species under the ESA. Conservation Biology 17(3):651-652. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.02110.x. (link )

Gerber, L. R., L. W. Botsford, A. Hastings, H. P. Possingham, S. D. Gaines, S. R. Palumbi and S. Andelman. 2003. Population models for marine reserve design: A retrospective and prospective synthesis. Ecological Applications 13(Sp. 1):47-64. DOI: 10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0047:PMFMRD]2.0.CO;2. (link )

Gerber, L. R., E. W. Seabloom, R. S. Burton and O. J. Reichman. 2003. Translocation of an imperiled woodrat population: Integrating spatial and habitat patterns. Animal Conservation 6(4):309-316. DOI: 10.1017/S136794300300338X. (link )

Shelden, K. E., D. J. Rugh, D. P. DeMaster and L. R. Gerber. 2003. Evaluation of bowhead whale status: Reply to Taylor. Conservation Biology 17(3):918-920. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.03003.x. (link )


Gerber, L. R. and L. T. Hatch. 2002. Are we recovering? An evaluation of recovery criteria under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Ecological Applications 12(3):668-673. DOI: 10.2307/3060976. (link )

Gerber, L. R., P. M. Kareiva and J. Bascompte. 2002. The influence of life history attributes and fishing pressure on the efficacy of marine reserves. Biological Conservation 106(1):11-18. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00224-5. (link )

Lafferty, K. D. and L. R. Gerber. 2002. Good medicine for conservation biology: The intersection of epidemiology and conservation theory. Conservation Biology 16(3):593-604. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00446.x. (link )

Schultz, C. B. and L. R. Gerber. 2002. Are recovery plans improving with practice?. Ecological Applications 12(3):641-647. DOI: 10.1890/1051-0761(2002)012[0641:ARPIWP]2.0.CO;2. (link )


Gerber, L. 2001. Conservation biology of cetaceans in marine communities of Baja California: Science or advocacy?. Global Ecology and Biogeography 10(3):335-336. DOI: 10.1046/j.1466-822X.2001.00171-8.x. (link )

Gerber, L. R. and R. Hilborn. 2001. Catastrophic events and recovery from low densities in populations of otariids: Implications for risk of extinction. Mammal Review 31(2):131-150. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2907.2001.00081.x. (link )

Gerber, L. R. and C. B. Schultz. 2001. Authorship and the use of biological information in endangered species recovery plans. Conservation Biology 15(5):1308-1314. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2001.00110.x. (link )

Gerber, L. R. and G. VanBlaricom. 2001. Implications of three viability models for the conservation status of the western population of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Biological Conservation 102(3):261-269. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00104-5. (link )


Gerber, L. R. 2000. Letters to the Editors: Science and sentimentality - Dr. Gerber replies. American Scientist 88(6):476-478. (link )

Gerber, L. R., D. DeMaster and S. Perry Roberts. 2000. Measuring success in conservation. Assessing efforts to restore populations of marine mammals is partly a matter of epistemology: How do you know when enough is enough?. American Scientist 88(4):316-324. (link )


Gerber, L. R. and D. P. DeMaster. 1999. A quantitative approach to Endangered Species Act classification of long-lived vertebrates: Application to the North Pacific humpback whale. Conservation Biology 13(5):1203-1214. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98277.x. (link )

Gerber, L. R., D. P. DeMaster and P. M. Kareiva. 1999. Gray whales and the value of monitoring data in implementing the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 13(5):1215-1219. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98466.x. (link )

Gerber, L. R., W. S. Wooster, D. P. DeMaster and G. R. VanBlaricom. 1999. Marine mammals: New objectives in U.S. fishery management. Reviews in Fisheries Science 7(1):23-38. DOI: 10.1080/10641269991319180. (link )


Gerber, L. R. 1998. Seeking a rational approach to setting conservation priorities for marine mammals. Integrative Biology 1(3):90-98. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:3<90::AID-INBI3>3.0.CO;2-Q. (link )


Norse, E. A. and L. R. Gerber. 1993. A global strategy for conserving biological diversity in the sea. Diversity 9(3):40-43. (link )

Book Chapters


del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, M. and L. R. Gerber. 2015. Guiding principles for green economic development in the marine environment: Insights from small-scale fisheries and marine protected areas. Pp. Chapter 8 In: Gasparatos, A. and K. J. Willis eds., Biodiversity in the Green Economy. Routledge. ISBN: 9780415723329.


VanBlaricom, G., L. R. Gerber and R. L. Brownell Jr. 2013. Extinctions of marine mammals. Pp. 64-93 In: Levin, S. A. ed., Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. Elsevier Inc.. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-384719-5.00187-8. ISBN: 9780123847195. (link )


Gerber, L. R., T. G. Crawford and B. S. Halpern. 2012. Marine reserves and ecosystem-based management. Pp. 397-403 In: Hastings, A. and L. J. Gross eds., Encyclopedia of Theoretical Ecology. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA. ISBN: 978-0520269651.

Hernandez-Camacho, C. J. and L. R. Gerber. 2012. Sea lions. World Book Encyclopedia. World Book.


Gerber, L. R. 2004. Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Pacific Rim: Biological uncertainty and extinction risk. Pp. 482-490 In: Akcakaya, H. R., M. A. Burgman, O. Kindvall, C. C. Wood, J. S. Hatfield and M. A. McCarthy eds., Species Conservation and Management: Case Studies. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-0195166460.


VanBlaricom, G., L. R. Gerber and R. L. Brownell Jr. 2001. Extinctions of marine mammals. Pp. 37-69 In: Levin, S. A. ed., Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. Elsevier Inc.. DOI: 10.1016/B0-12-226865-2/00188-7. ISBN: 978-0-12-226865-6 . (link )

Conference Papers


Szteren, D., D. Aurioles and L. R. Gerber. 2006. Population status and trends of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Pp. 369-384 In: Trites, A. W., S. K. Atkinson, D. P. DeMaster, L. W. Fritz, T. S. Gelatt, L. D. Rea and K. M. Wynne eds., Sea Lions of the World. Sea Lions of the World: Conservation and Research in the 21st Century, 22nd Lowell Wakefield Fisheries Symposium. Anchorage, AK. (link )



Rudnick, D. A., S. J. Ryan, P. Beier, S. A. Cushman, F. Dieffenbach, C. W. Epps, L. R. Gerber, J. Hartter, J. S. Jenness, J. Kintsch, A. M. Merenlender, R. M. Perkl, D. V. Preziosi and S. C. Trombulak. 2012. The role of landscape connectivity in planning and implementing conservation and restoration priorities. Ecological Society of America. 16. (link )


Morissette, L., J. L. Melgo, K. Kaschner and L. R. Gerber. 2009. Modelling the trophic role of marine mammals in tropical areas: data requirements, uncertainty, and validation. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia . Research Report Vol. 17, No. 2. (link )


D'Agrosa, C., L. R. Gerber, J. Wielgus and F. Ballantyne. 2007. Navigating uncertain seas: Adaptive monitoring and management of marine protected areas. School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University and Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. (link )