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David Hole

David Hole

Former Conservation International-Center for Biodiversity Outcomes Professor of Practice, Center for Biodiversity Outcomes, Global Institute of Sustainability and Innovation


  • Affiliate Global Futures Scholar, Julie Ann Wrigley Global Futures Laboratory
  • Former Conservation International-Center for Biodiversity Outcomes Professor of Practice, Center for Biodiversity Outcomes, Global Institute of Sustainability and Innovation
  • Vice President, Global Solutions, Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science, Conservation International


Dave Hole, CI-CBO former Professor of Practice, is a Senior Director leading the Global Synthesis Team within Conservation International’s Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans. His team focuses on conducting novel global analyses that identify and evaluate the contribution of natural capital (ecosystems and the biodiversity that underpins them) to human wellbeing, across marine, freshwater and terrestrial realms. Much of his own research has focused on climate change impacts on species and ecosystems, and the role of protected areas in supporting species persistence in an uncertain, dynamic future. More recently he has begun exploring the contexts in which ecosystems and the services they provide can help buffer people from the negative impacts of climate change.

A native of the UK, Dave joined CI in 2008 after completing a PhD at the University of Oxford (UK) and post-doctoral work at both Oxford and Durham Universities. He has authored numerous peer-review publications and book chapters on subjects ranging from lipid metabolism, to house sparrow genetics, to climate change and its potential impacts on biodiversity and people.


  • PhD, NERC/RSPB CASE studentship, University of Oxford, 2001
  • MS, Ecology, Durham University, 1996
  • BS, Hons Biological Sciences, Lancaster University, 1994


Journal Articles


Kemppinen, K. M., P. M. Collins, D. G. Hole, C. Wolf, W. J. Ripple and L. R. Gerber. 2020. Global reforestation and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 34(5):1221-1228. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13478. (link )


Bourne, A., H. Muller, A. de Villiers, M. Alam and D. Hole. 2017. Assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of rangeland restoration in Namaqualand, South Africa. Plant Ecology 216(1):7-22. DOI: 10.1007/s11258-016-0644-3. (link )


Neugarten, R. A., M. Honzak, P. Carret, K. Koenig, L. Andriamaro, C. A. Cano, H. S. Grantham, D. Hole, D. Juhn, M. McKinnon, A. Rasolohery, M. Steininger, T. M. Wright and W. R. Turner. 2016. Rapid assessment of ecosystem service co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in Madagascar. PLoS One 11(12):e0168575. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168575. (link )


McKinnon, M. and D. G. Hole. 2015. Exploring program theory to enhance monitoring and evaluation in ecosystem-based adaptation projects. New Directions for Evaluation 147(Fall):49-60. DOI: 10.1002/ev.20130. (link )

Pacifici, M., W. B. Foden, P. Visconti, J. E. Watson, S. H. Butchart, K. M. Kovacs, B. R. Sheffers, D. G. Hole, T. G. Martin, H. Resit Akcakaya, R. T. Corlett, B. Huntley, D. Bickford, J. A. Carr, A. A. Hoffmann, G. F. Midgley, P. Pearce-Kelly, R. G. Pearson, S. E. Williams, S. G. Willis, B. Young and C. Rondinini. 2015. Assessing species vulnerability to climate change. Nature Climate Change 5:215-224. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2448. (link )

Segan, D. B., D. G. Hole, C. I. Donatti, C. Zganjar, S. Martin, S. H. Butchart and J. E. Watson. 2015. Considering the human response to climate change significantly alters the outcome of species and site-based vulnerability assessments. Diversity and Distributions 21(9):1101-1111. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12355. (link )


Chapman, S., K. Mustin, A. R. Renwick, D. B. Segan, D. G. Hole, R. G. Pearson and J. E. Watson. 2014. Publishing trends on climate change vulnerability in the conservation literature reveal a predominant focus on direct impacts and long time-scales. Diversity and Distributions 20(10):1221-1228. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12234. (link )

Estes, L. D., L. Paroz, B. A. Bradley, J. M. Green, D. G. Hole, S. Holness, G. Ziv, M. G. Oppenheimer and D. S. Wilcove. 2014. Using changes in agricultural utility to quantify future climate-induced risk to conservation. Conservation Biology 28(2):427-437. DOI: 0.1111/cobi.12205. (link )


Bagchi, R., M. Crosby, B. Huntley, D. G. Hole, S. H. Butchart, Y. Collingham, M. Kalra, J. Rajkumar, A. Rahmani, M. Pandey, H. Gurung, L. Trai, N. V. Quang and S. G. Willis. 2013. Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation site networks under climate change: Accounting for uncertainty. Global Climate Change 19(4):1236-1248. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12123. (link )

Busch, J., J. A. Ahumada, F. de Koning, C. A. Harvey, J. Hewson, D. G. Hole, M. Honzak, S. N. Panfil, E. Pidgeon, R. Portela, M. Steininger, K. Tabor and W. R. Turner. 2013. Research Spotlight: Designing nature-based mitigation to promote multiple benefits. Journal of Carbon Management 4(2):129-133. DOI: 10.4155/cmt.13.14. (link )

Estes, L. D., B. A. Bradley, H. Buekes, D. G. Hole, M. Lau, M. G. Oppenheimer, R. Schulze, M. A. Tadross and W. R. Turner. 2013. Comparing mechanistic and empirical model projections of crop suitability and productivity: Implications for ecological forecasting. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22(8):1007-1018. DOI: 10.1111/geb.12034. (link )

Hannah, L., M. Ikegami, D. G. Hole, C. Seo, S. H. Butchart, A. T. Peterson and P. R. Roehrdanz. 2013. Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security. PLOS One 8(8):e72590. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072590. (link )


Bradley, B. A., L. D. Estes, D. G. Hole, S. Holness, M. G. Oppenheimer, W. R. Turner, H. Beukes, R. E. Schulze, M. A. Tadross and D. S. Wilcove. 2012. Predicting how adaptation to climate change could affect ecological conservation: Secondary impacts of shifting agricultural suitability. Diversity and Distributions 18(5):425-437. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00875.x. (link )

Huntley, B., R. Altwegg, P. Barnard, Y. Collingham and D. G. Hole. 2012. Modelling relationships between species spatial abundance patterns and climate. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21(6):668-681. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00701.x. (link )

Jones, H. P., D. G. Hole and E. S. Zavaleta. 2012. Harnessing nature to help people adapt to climate change. Nature Climate Change 2:504-509. DOI: 1038/nclimate1463. (link )


Hole, D. G., B. Huntley, J. Arinaitwe, S. H. Butchart, Y. C. Collingham, L. D. Fishpool, D. J. Pain and S. G. Willis. 2011. Toward a management framework for networks of protected areas in the face of climate change. Conservation Biology 25(2):305-315. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01633.x. (link )


Huntley, B., P. Barnard, R. Altwegg, L. Chambers, B. W. Coetzee, L. Gibson, P. A. Hockey, D. G. Hole, G. F. Midgley, L. G. Underhill and S. G. Willis. 2010. Beyond bioclimatic envelopes: Dynamic species’ range and abundance modelling in the context of climatic change. Ecography 33(3):621-626. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2009.06023.x. (link )

Lindsay, S. W., D. G. Hole, R. A. Hutchinson, S. A. Richards and S. G. Willis. 2010. Assessing the future threat from vivax malaria in the United Kingdom using two markedly different modelling approaches. Malaria Journal 9(1):Art. 70. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-70. (link )

Turner, W. R., B. A. Bradley, L. D. Estes, D. G. Hole, M. G. Oppenheimer and D. S. Wilcove. 2010. Climate change: Helping nature survive the human response. Conservation Letters 3(5):304-312. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00128.x. (link )


Fisher, B., K. Bolt, R. B. Bradbury, T. A. Gardner, J. M. Green, D. G. Hole and R. Naidoo. 2009. Two cultures of conservation. Conservation Biology 23(5):1069-1071. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01307.x. (link )

Hole, D. G., S. G. Willis, D. J. Pain, L. D. Fishpool, S. H. Butchart, Y. C. Collingham, C. Rahbek and B. Huntley. 2009. Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network. Ecology Letters 12:420-431. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01297.x. (link )

Willis, S. G., D. G. Hole, Y. C. Collingham, G. Hilton, C. Rahbek and B. Huntley. 2009. Assessing the impacts of future climate change on protected area networks: A method to simulate individual species’ responses. Environmental Management 43(5):836-845. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-008-9125-3. (link )


Hole, D. G., A. J. Perkins, J. D. Wilson, I. H. Alexander, P. V. Grice and A. D. Evans. 2005. Does organic farming benefit biodiversity?. Biological Conservation 122(1):113-130. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.07.018. (link )


Hole, D. G., M. J. Whittingham, R. B. Bradbury, G. Q. Anderson, P. L. Lee, J. D. Wilson and J. R. Krebs. 2002. Brief Communication - Agriculture: Widespread local house-sparrow extinctions. Nature 418(Aug):931-932. DOI: 10.1038/418931a. (link )

Book Chapters


Matachoa, J., G. Schroth, T. Hills and D. Hole. 2012. Integrating climate change adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry and ecosystem conservation. Pp. 105-126 In: Nair, P. R. and D. Garrity eds., Agroforestry -- The Future of Global Land Use. Vol 9. Springer.


Huntley, B., D. G. Hole and S. G. Willis. 2011. Assessing the effectiveness of a protected area network in the face of climatic change. Pp. 345-364 In: Hodkinson, T. R., M. B. Jones, S. Waldren and J. A. Parnell eds., Climate Change, Ecology and Systematics. Vol 78. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 13: 978-0521766098.


Willis, S. G., D. G. Hole and B. Huntley. 2010. Climate change and conservation. Pp. 331-348 In: Leader-Williams, N., W. M. Adams and R. J. Smith eds., Trade-offs in Conservation: Deciding What to Save. Vol 8. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN: 13: 978-1405193832.



Herzog, S. K., P. M. Jorgensen, M. Guingla, C. Martius, E. P. Anderson, D. G. Hole, T. H. Larsen, J. A. Marengo, D. R. Carrascal and H. Tiessen. 2010. Efectos del cambio climatic en la biodiversidad de los Andes tropicales: el estado del conocimiento cientifico. Resumen para tomadores de decisions y responsables de la formulacion de politicas publicas. Instituto Interamericano para la Investigacion del Cambio Global (IAI).

Report Chapters


Huntley, B., Y. Collingham, S. Willis and D. G. Hole. 2012. Protected areas and climatic change in Europe: Introduction. Pp. 29-47 In: Ellwanger, G., A. Ssymank and C. Paulish eds., Natura 2000 and Climate Change -- A Challenge. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. Bonn, Germany.


Hole, D. G., K. R. Young, A. Seimon, C. Gomez Wichtendahl, D. Hoffmann, K. Schutze Paez, S. Sanchez, D. Muchoney, H. R. Grau, E. Ramirez and P. M. Jorgensen. 2011. Adaptive management for biodiversity conservation under climate change -- a tropical Andean perspective. Pp. 19-46 In: Herzog, S. K., R. Martinez and H. Tiessen eds., Climate Change and Biodiversity in the Tropical Andes. MacArthur Foundation, Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research, and SCOPE. (link )

Turner, W. R., R. A. Mittermeier, J. Marton-Lefevre, S. N. Stuart, J. Smart, D. G. Hole and E. R. Selig. 2011. Climate change: Protecting biodiversity and harnessing nature's climate solutions. Pp. 153-161 In: Brundtland, G. H., P. Ehrlich, J. Goldemberg, J. Hansen, A. Lovins, G. E. Likens, S. Manabe, B. May, H. Mooney, K. Robert, E. Salem, G. Sato, S. Solomon, N. Stern, M. S. Swaminathan and R. Watson eds., Environment and Development Challenges: The Imperative to Act. Asahi Glass Foundation Blue Planet Price. Tokyo, Japan. (link )