Hurricanes and Extreme Storms

Seattle, Washington: Elevated Floating Bridge

City: Seattle
Country / US State / US Territory: Washington
Type of Solution: Bridge
Climate Impact: Hurricanes and Extreme Storms
Social Value Created: Diverse Transportation; Public Health and Safety; Active Living and Recreation

The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) is completed reconstruction of the Evergreen Point (SR 250) floating bridge spanning Lake Washington in April 2016. The bridge is the longest floating bridge in the world. Floating bridges are support by large, water-right concrete pontoons. The bridge was reconstructed to withstand that anticipated increase in wind loads from more frequent extreme storms and hurricanes. Stronger winds may result in bridge failure by breaking the drawspan, anchor cables, or pontoons.

The new bridge design has also addressed anticipated increases in traffic congestion by increasing the width of the lands and adding a transit/High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane. Additionally, there will be a new 14-foot-wide bicycle and pedestrian path that connects to recreational trails, improving recreation and increasing diversity of transportation options for commuters. The new design include flexibility for the City to add on a light rail in the future, also supporting diverse transportation options.

Washington State Department of Transportation. (n.d.). SR 520 bridge replacement and HOV program – floating bridge facts. Retrieved from

Miami Florida, Citizens Oversight Board for Miami Forever Bond

City: Miami
Country / US State / US Territory: Florida
Type of Solution: Awareness Campaign / Community Outreach and Education Program
Climate Impact: Sea Level Rise; Hurricanes and Extreme Storms; Extreme Precipitation and Flooding
Social Value Created: Community Engagement; Social Justice and Equity for Vulnerable Communities

Miami faces flooding risks due to sea level rise and inundation, extreme precipitation, and hurricanes and storm surge. Miami received a $400 million general obligation bond (GOB), and $192 million of the bond was dedicated to projects to manage sea level rise and flooding. GOBs are typically used for non-bankable projects, which are projects where there is not a consistent stream of revenue generated. Projects will include solutions such as drainage systems and anti-flooding pumps, raised roads, and sea walls.

The Citizens Oversight Board was created to help oversee these projects and allow for residents to have input into the projects. Local community non-profit organizations, Catalyst Miami and Miami Climate Alliance, provided recommended criteria for board members selected. For example, the board members must reflect the overall composition / demographics of the city, composed of a diverse group of residents.

The Citizens Oversight Board review process includes examination of projects’ social, environmental, and economic benefits. Projects aim help to address socioeconomic inequality issues affecting vulnerable communities, as well.

Fig: Graphic showing a drainage system and anti-flooding pumps, raised road, and seawall (Photos Retrieved from

Fig: Flyer distributed by Miami Climate Alliance asking community members to request use of the recommended criteria for the selection Citizen Oversight Board members. (Photo Retrieved from )

City of Miami. [City of Miami Gov]. (September 22, 2017). City of Miami Forever General Obligation Bond [Video File]. Retrieved from

Flechas, J. (March 23, 2018). Miami will spend $400 million on drainage, housing and parks. How can residents have a say? Miami Herald. Retrieved from

Miami Forever. Investing in Infrastructure. Retrieved from

Stein, K. (November 9, 2017). What’s next on the $400 million Miami Forever Bond. WLRN. Retrieved from

Urban Environment League of Greater Miami (UEL). (November 4, 2017). Taking a look at the Miami Forever Bond. UEL. Retrieved from

*Note: This case was documented from an interview with a city practitioner.